Latin Moses

Latin Jubilees Sample Pages

Fragmenta Parvae Genesis

[4 pages lost]

p. 134 (original p. 211)

ch. 38

1 ut demus illi gloriam.

2Tunc iacob extendit ar-
suum et trans-
sagittam et per-
esau fratrem
suum contra mam-
dextram ipsi-
et deiecit illum.

3Et emisit sagittam se-
et per et per-
adoram arom-
Aramaeum iuxta mam-
sinistram ip-
et deiecit illum
et occidit eum·

4 Et post haec exierunt
filii iacob· ipsi et pue-
ipsorum diuisi in
quattuor spiritus
bareos· 5 Et exiuit iu-
primus et nepta-
et gad cum eo et
quinquaginta pue-
cum ipso secundum

meridianum barinbari
et interfecerunt
quodquod inuene-
in conspectu
suo et non effugiit
ex illis neque unus.

6 Et leuui et dan et aser
exierunt secundum
orientem bari et quin-
cum ipsis
et interfecerunt
bellatores moab
et ammon.

7 Exierunt ruben et
issacar· et zabulon
et quinquaginta ip-
cum ipsis et
interfecerunt et
ipsi bellatores filistin.

8 Et exiuit symeon et
beniamin· et enoch
filius ruben secun-
occasum barin
et quinquaginta ipsorum

3 et per] The manuscript duplicates “et per.” Rönsch deletes as dittography.
3 adoram] or Aduram. See Genesis 10:27, הֲדֹורָם, Ὀδοῤῥά, Aduram. Ethiopic Jubilees and the Syriac fragments here have Aduran and Aroda, respectively.
3 arom-menon· Aramaeum] Rönsch emends “arommenon” to “Aramaeum.” Compare Ἀραμμαῖοι and Ἀριμαῖος.
4 bareos] sc. ἡ βᾶρις, -εως.
7 zabulon] Rönsch adds “secundum septentrionem bari” (on the north side of the tower) to parallel the three related formulations.

p. 133 (original p. 212)

cum ipsis· et inter-
ex edom
et ex correo quadrin-
uiros bella-
et sescenti fugerunt
et quattuor filii esau
fugerunt cum ipsis
et dereliquerunt
corpus patris sui pro-
in excelso
quod in adurin. 9 et per-
sunt filii iacob
post eos usque ad mon-
seir· et iacob sep-
esau fratrem
suum in excelso quod
est in adurin et con-
est in barin·

10 Et circumsederunt filii
iacob filios esau in
monte seir· et sub-
illos ut
sint seruientes fi-
iacob· 11 Et miserunt

ad iacob patrem suum
si facient pacem cum
ipsis 12 Et posue-
iugum timoris
super ipsis ut dent
honorem iacob et
filiis eius in omnibus
diebus. 13 et erant dantes
honorem iacob usque
in diem defscensionis
eius in aegyptum.

14 Et non cessauerunt
filii edom de iugo ti-
quem inpo-
illis filii ia-
usque in diem is-
· 15 et hii reges qui
regnauerunt in edom
priusquam regnaret
regnum in filiis istra-
usque in diem hunc
in terra edom: 16 ba-
filius beor et no-
ciuitatis eius

8 fugerunt] Rönsch supplies “fugerunt” (fled) as the verb for the six hundred as well as the four sons of Esau.
11 si facient pacem cum ipsis] Rönsch supplies based on the Ethiopic what presumably fell out by homeoteleuton, “an interficient (future indicative) eos. Et misit Jacob ad filios suos, ut facerent pacem, et fecerunt pacem cum ipsis” (or kill them. And Jacob conveyed to his sons that they should make peace, so they made peace with them). Charles supplies “interficiant” (present subjunctive).
13 defscensionis] Rönsch emends defensionis (defense) to descensionis (descent) based on context.

[4 pages lost]

Appendix A. Translation

ch. 38

1… to honor him.

2Then Jacob stretched out his bow and shot an arrow and struck Esau, his brother, on the right breast and brought him down dead to the ground.

3And he sent forth a second arrow and struck Adoram the Aramean on his left breast and brought him down to the ground and killed him.

4And after this the sons of Jacob and their servants divided themselves to the four sidesa of the towerb and went out on their own accord. 5Judah was the first to go out—both Naphtali and Gad were with him—and fifty servants went out with Judah along the south side of the tower; they killed everyone in sight and not a single person escaped them.

6Levi and Dan and Asher went out along the east side of the tower and fifty servants were with them; they killed the Moabite and Ammonite soldiers.

7Reuben and Issachar and Zebulon went out along the north side of the tower and fifty of their servants were with them; they killed the Philistine soldiers on their own.

8Simeon and Benjamin and Enoch, the son of Reuben, went out along the west side of the tower and fifty of their servants were with them; they killed four-hundred Edomites and Horites—they were soldiers—and six hundred fled. Esau’s four sons fled along with them and left behind their father’s body after it was abandoned on a hill in Adurin. 9Jacob’s sons pursued them up to Mount Seir, and Jacob buried Esau, his brother, on the hill that is in Adurin and turned back to the tower.

10Jacob’s sons surrounded Esau’s sons on Mount Seir and forced them into submission to serve the sons of Jacob. 11They sent word to Jacob, their father, if they should make peace; 12they placed the yoke of fearc on them to honor Jacob and his sons for all time. 13They were honoring Jacob up to the day of his descent into Egypt.

14Edom’s sons did not cease from the yoke of fear, which Jacob’s sons imposed upon them, until this very day. 15These are the kings who ruled in Edom until today in the land of Edom, before a kingship governed the sons of Israel: 16Bela,d the son of Beor, and the name of his city was …

aLiterally “four winds” in the sense of four compass points. See 1 Chron 9:24.
bThe word here for “tower” is related to βᾶρις, which first appears as an Egyptian type of boat and may have come from the Egyptian language. Rönsch (p. 459), noting that βᾶρις and θíβις (TIBIS) are used in Codex Alexandrinus, argued that the translation from Greek to Latin was done in Egypt.
cEthiopic has “yoke of servitude.” Rönsch explains as confusion of δουλεíας (servitude) and δειλíας (fear).
dBela/Balak (בלע/βαλακ) son of Beor appears as a king of Edom in Gen 36:32-33 and 1 Chron 1:43-44. See also Bera/Balla (ברע/Βαλλα) King of Sodom in Gen 14:2, 8. Balak (בלק/Βαλακ) son of Zippor is the king of Moab in the story of Balaam (Num 22-24).

Appendix B. Bibliography

Antonio Maria Ceriani, Fragmenta Latina evangelii S. Lucae, Parvae Genesis et Assumptionis Mosis, Baruch, Threni et Epistola Jeremiae versionis Syriacae Pauli Telensis: cum notis et initio prolegomenon in integram ejusdem versionis editionem (Monumenta Sacra et Profana ex Codiciubus praesertim Bibliotheca Ambrosiana 1; Milan: Typis et impensis Bibliothecae Ambrosianae, 1861).

A. M. Denis, Concordance latine du Liber Jubilaeorum sive Parva Genesis (Informatique et étude de textes 4; Louvain: CETEDOC, 1973).

Ian W. Scott, Kenneth M. Penner, and David M. Miller, eds., “The Online Critical Pseudepigrapha,” 2006–.

Appendix C. Prosopography

Borromeo, Federico
Ceriani, Antonio Maria
Charles, Robert Henry
Gura, David
Hanneken, Todd R.
Mai, Angelo
Rönsch, Hermann

Appendix D. About This Document and Its Source Manuscript

Hanneken, Todd R., ed., Latin Moses, The Jubilees Palimpsest Project, 2022. CC BY-NC

Based on Biblioteca Ambrosiana (Milan) C73 inf

  1. Latin Moses, original pages 1–272, modern pages 49–144
    1. Latin Jubilees, original pages 1–256, modern pages 49–66, 69–76, 79–84, 87–90, 93–96, 101–108, 113–144
    2. Testament of Moses, original pages 257–272, modern pages 67–68, 77–78, 85–86, 91–92, 97–100, 109–112
  2. Latin Commentary on Luke, modern pages 1–48
  3. Eugippius, Anthology of Augustine, modern pages 1–144
  4. Modern frontmatter

Support: parchment

Extent: Latin Moses was originally at least 272 pages, of which 96 are preserved. Today an additional 48 pages of Latin Commentary on Luke are preserved with the manuscript. Typical leaf height 29 cm. Typical leaf width 24 cm.

Modern page numbers (not folio numbers) were added using Arabic numerals in upper outside corners relative to the palimpsest orientation (Eugippius).

The original fifth century manuscript contained more than 272 pages. We know the Testament of Moses ends abruptly, but do not know how many pages followed. We know from quire signatures that the Testament of Moses followed after Latin Jubilees. If the length of Latin Jubilees corresponds to Ethiopic Jubilees there must have been compression of text or additional pages inserted. Some quire signatures have been observed but all original page numbers are reconstructed.

Quire signatures were observed by Rönsch.

As of 2011 the bifolia are disbound and stored separately in protective folders. Most bifolia are intact. Some are split but stored with the original partner. In one case glue has created a false pair.

See history, below, for how erased folios from two separate collections were combined in the eighth century.

The reconstruction of the original codex is based on quire signatures and extrapolation based on the assumption that the extent of Latin Jubilees is comparable to Ethiopic Jubilees. The reconstructed collation can be visualized at​/LatinMosesReconstruction.html.

There is no evidence of collation other than standard quires.

All pages are treated with at least one form of iron gall reagent. Edges are worn but not as far as the main text columns. Cockling is often 1 cm deep, as evident in raking illumination images. Ink has corroded through the parchment in places, as evident in transmissive illumination images.

Latin Moses ruled with 24 lines and 2 columns.

Latin Commentary on Luke ruled with 22 lines and 1 columns.

Anthology of Augustine ruled with 35 lines and 1 columns.

Latin Moses writing:

Written in iron gall ink. No direct evidence of rubrication is preserved. The complete absense of any trace of writing at the first three lines of the Testament of Moses is consistent with the possibility that a different ink was used for those three lines. The same hand seems to be responsible for all of Latin Moses. The difference between written words and roman numerals between Latin Jubilees and Testament of Moses could be attributed to the source documents. A palaeography chart for Latin Moses is available online at​/annotations​/LatinMosesPaleography.html. See Ceriani for more on the classification and dating of the script.

Latin Commentary on Luke writing:

Written in iron gall ink with frequent rubrication for lemmas from the Gospel of Luke. See Gryson for more detail.

Anthology of Augustine writing:

Iron gall ink

Unbound as of 2011

Originally copied in Northern Italy in the fifth century.

Catalogued at the Bobbio monastery in 1461.

Acquired for the Biblioteca Ambrosiana by Federico Borromeo in 1606.

See further, Hanneken, The Book of Jubilees in Latin.