Selections from 1 Enoch

Table of Contents

1. Enoch’s Dream Visions (Chapters 83-90)

1.1. Enoch’s First Dream Vision: The Flood (Chapters 83-84)

1.2. Enoch’s Second Dream Vision: The History of Humanity (Chapters 85-90)

1.2.1. Introduction to the Vision

1.2.2. From Adam to the Fall of Jerusalem Adam and Eve and Their Children The Fall of the Watchers and the Violence of the Giants Divine Judgment Noah and the Flood From the Disembarkation to the Exodus From the Exodus to Moses’ Death From the Entrance into the Land to the Building of the Temple The Apostasy of the Two Kingdoms

1.2.3. From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the End of Time The Commissioning of the Seventy Shepherds and the Angelic Scribe The First Period: The Twelve Shepherds until the Exile The Second Period: the Twenty-three Shepherds from the Return to Alexander The Third Period: the Twenty-three Shepherds from Alexander into the Second Century The Fourth Period: the Twelve Shepherds Until the End Time

1.2.4. The Judgment and the New Age The Judgment A New Beginning

1.2.5. The Conclusion to the Vision

2. A Narrative Bridge (Chapters 91:1-9, 18-19)

3. The Epistle of Enoch (Chapters 92-105)

3.1. Introduction (Chapter 92)

3.2. The Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1-10; 91:11-17)

3.2.1. Introduction

3.2.2. The Apocalypse

1. Enoch’s Dream Visions (Chapters 83-90)

1.1. Enoch’s First Dream Vision: The Flood (Chapters 83-84)

And now, my son Methuselah, I will show you all the visions that I saw;
before you I will recount (them).
Two visions I saw before I took a wife,
and the one was unlike the other.
The first (was) when I was learning to write,
and the second, before I took your mother (as my wife).
I saw a terrible vision,
and concerning it I made supplication to the Lord.
I was lying down in the house of Mahalalel, my grandfather, (when) I saw in a vision.
Heaven was thrown down and taken away,
and it fell down upon the earth.
And when it fell upon the earth,
I saw how the earth was swallowed up in the great abyss.
Mountains were suspended upon mountains,
and hills sank down upon hills;
Tall trees were cut from their roots,
and were thrown away and sank into the abyss.
And then speech fell into my mouth, and I lifted up (my voice) to cry out and said,
“The earth has been destroyed.”
And Mahalalel my grandfather aroused me, since I was lying near him, and said to me,
“Why do you cry out so, my son,
and why do you lament so?”
And I recounted to him the whole vision that I had seen, and he said to me,
“A terrible thing you have seen, my son,
and mighty is the vision of your dream (in) the secrets of all the sin of the earth.
It must sink into the abyss,
and it will be utterly destroyed.
And now, my son, arise and make supplication to the Lord of glory, since you are faithful,
that a remnant may remain upon the earth,
and that he may not obliterate the whole earth.
My son, from heaven all this will take place on the earth,
and on the earth there will be great destruction.”
Then I arose and prayed and made supplication and request,
and my prayer I wrote down for the generations of eternity,
and everything I shall show you, my son Methuselah.
And when I went out below,
and saw the heaven and the sun rising in the east,
and the moon setting in the west and a few stars,
and all the earth and everything as he knew<made> it from the beginning,
Then I blessed the Lord of judgment, and to him I ascribed majesty,
for he made the sun go forth from the windows of the east,
so that it ascended and rose on the face of the heaven,
and he made it rise, and it traverses the path that it was shown.
And I lifted up my hands in righteousness and blessed the Great Holy One,
and I spoke with the breath of my mouth and with a tongue of flesh,1
which God has made for the sons of the flesh of man, that they might speak with it.
{And he has given them breath and tongue and mouth that they might speak with it.}
“Blessed are you, O Lord, King,
great and mighty in your majesty,
Lord of all the creation of the heaven,
King of kings and God of all eternity.
Your power and your reign and your majesty abide forever and forever and ever,
and to all generations, your dominion.
All the heavens are your throne forever,
and all the earth is your footstool forever and forever and ever.
For you have made and you rule all things,
and nothing is too difficult for you;
Wisdom does not escape you,
<and it does not turn away from your throne, > nor from your presence.
You know and see and hear all things,
and there is nothing that is hidden from you{ for you see all things}.
And now the angels of your heavens are doing wrong,
and upon human flesh is your wrath until the great day of judgment.
And now, O God and Lord and great King,
I make supplication and request that you fulfill my prayer,
to leave me a remnant on the earth,
and not obliterate all human flesh,
and devastate the earth,
that there be eternal destruction.
And now, my Lord, remove from the earth the flesh that has aroused your wrath,
but the righteous and true flesh raise up as a seed-bearing plant forever.
And hide not your face from the prayer of your servant, O Lord.”

1.2. Enoch’s Second Dream Vision: The History of Humanity (Chapters 85-90)

1.2.1. Introduction to the Vision

85 :1 After this I saw a second dream, and I will show all of it to you, my son.

2And Enoch lifted up (his voice) and said to his son Methuselah, “To you I speak, my son. Hear my words, and incline your ear to the dream vision of your father.

1.2.2. From Adam to the Fall of Jerusalem Adam and Eve and Their Children

3Before I took your mother Edna (as my wife), I saw in a vision on my bed, and look, a bull came forth from the earth, and that bull was white. And after it a young heifer came forth. And with her two bull calves came forth; one of them was black, and one was red. 4And that black calf struck the red one and pursued it over the earth.2 And from then on I could not see that red calf. 5But that black calf grew up, and a young heifer came to it. And I saw that many cattle came forth from it, that were like it and were following after it. 6And that female calf, that first one, went forth from the presence of that first bull; she searched for that red calf, but did not find it, and she lamented bitterly over it and searched for it. 7And I looked until that first bull came to her and quieted her, and from that time on she did not cry out. 8After this she bore another white bull, and after it she bore many black bulls and cows.

9And I saw in my sleep that white bull, that it grew likewise and became a large white bull, and from it came forth many white cattle, and they were like it. 10And they began to bear many white cattle, which were like them, and each one followed the other. The Fall of the Watchers and the Violence of the Giants

86 :1And again I saw with my eyes as I was sleeping. I saw the heaven above, and look, a star fell from heaven, and it arose and was eating and pasturing among those cattle.3 2Then I saw those large and black cattle, and look, all of them exchanged their pens and their pastures and their calves, and they began to moan,4 one after the other. 3And again I saw in the vision, and I looked to heaven, and look, I saw many stars descend and cast themselves down from heaven to that first star. And in the midst of those calves they became bulls, and they were pasturing with them in their midst.5 4I looked at them and I saw and look, all of them let out their organs like horses, and they began to mount the cows of the bulls, and they all conceived and bore elephants and camels and asses. 5And all the bulls feared them and were terrified before them, and they began to bite with their teeth and devour and gore with their horns. 6And they began to devour those bulls, and look, all the sons of the earth began to tremble and quake before them, and to flee. Divine Judgment

87 :1And again I saw them, and they began to gore one another and devour one another, and the earth began to cry out. 2And I lifted my eyes again to heaven, and I saw in the vision, and look, there came forth from heaven (beings) with the appearance of white men; four came forth from that place and three with them. 3And those three who came after took hold of me by my hand and raised me from the generations of the earth, and lifted me onto a high place, and they showed me a tower high above the earth, and all the hills were smaller. 4And they said to me, ‘Stay here until you see all that happens to those elephants and camels and asses and to the stars and to the cattle and all of them.’

88 :1And I saw one of those four who had come before; he seized that first star that had fallen from heaven, and he bound it by its hands and feet and threw it into an abyss, and that abyss was narrow and deep and desolate and darkness<dark>. 2And one of these drew a sword and gave it to those elephants and camels and asses. And they began to strike one another, and the whole earth quaked because of them. 3And as I looked in the vision, look, one of those four who had come forth hurled stones from heaven and gathered and took all the great stars, whose organs were like the organs of horses, and bound all of them by their hands and their feet, and threw them into an abyss of the earth. Noah and the Flood

89 :1And one of those four went to those<one of the> white bulls and taught it a mystery-trembling as it was.6 It was born a bull but became a man. And he built himself a large ship<vessel> and dwelt in it, and three bulls dwelt with him on that vessel, and the vessel was covered and roofed over them.7 2And again I lifted my eyes toward heaven, and I saw a high roof and seven sluices on it, and those sluices were pouring out much water into an enclosure. 3And I looked again and look, fissures opened up in the floor in that large enclosure, and that water began to bubble up and rise above the floor, and I was looking at that enclosure until all the floor was covered with water. 4And water and darkness and mist increased on it, and I kept seeing the height of that water, and that water had risen above that enclosure and was overflowing that enclosure and stood on the earth. 5And all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until I saw them sinking and being engulfed and perishing in that water. 6And that vessel was floating on the waters, but all the bulls and elephants and camels and asses sank to the bottom together with every animal, so that I could not see them. And they were unable to escape but perished and sank in the deep. 7And again I saw in the vision until those water channels were removed from that high roof and the fountains of the floor were stopped up, and other abysses were opened. 8And the water began to descend into them until the floor was uncovered and that vessel settled onto the floor, and darkness withdrew and it became light. From the Disembarkation to the Exodus

9That white bull who had become a man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him. And one of those three bulls was white like that bull, and one of them was red like blood, and one of them was black. And that white bull departed from them. 10And they began to beget wild beasts and birds, so that there arose from them every kind of species: lions, leopards, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, conies, pigs, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles,8 and ravens. But among them a white bull was born. 11And they began to bite one another, but that white bull that was born among them begot a wild ass and a white bull with it, and the wild asses increased. 12But that bull9 that was born from it begot a black wild boar and a white ram of the flock. And that (wild boar) begot many boars, and that ram begat twelve sheep.

13When those twelve sheep had grown up, they handed over one of themselves to the wild asses, and those wild asses, in turn, handed that sheep over to the wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. 14And the ram led forth the eleven sheep to dwell with it and to pasture with it among the wolves. And they multiplied and became many flocks of sheep.

15And the wolves began to fear them and oppress them until they did away with their young, and they cast their young into a river of much water. And those sheep began to cry out because of their young and to make complaint to their Lord. 16And a sheep that had escaped safely from the wolves fled and went off to the wild asses. And I saw the sheep groaning and crying out and petitioning their Lord with all their might, until that Lord of the sheep descended from a lofty chamber at the voice of the sheep, and he came to them and saw them. 17And he summoned that sheep that had fled from the wolves, and he spoke to it about the wolves, that it should testify against them not to touch the sheep. 18And the sheep went to the wolves at the command of the Lord, and another sheep met that sheep and went with it. And the two of them went and entered together into the assembly of those wolves. And they spoke to them and testified against them that they should not henceforth touch the sheep. 19After this I saw the wolves, how they dealt more harshly with the sheep with all their might, and (how) the sheep cried out. 20And their Lord came to the sheep and began to strike the wolves, and the wolves began to lament. But the sheep were quiet, and thereafter they did not cry out.

21And I looked at the sheep until they went out from the wolves, and the wolves’ eyes were blinded, and the wolves went out pursuing those sheep with all their might. 22And the Lord of the sheep went with them, leading them, and all his sheep followed him. And his face was dazzling and glorious and fearful to look at. 23And the wolves began to pursue those sheep until they met them by a swamp of water. 24And that swamp of water was split apart, and the water stood to one side and the other before them. And their Lord, as he led them, stood between them and the wolves. 25And as those wolves still did not see the sheep, they went into the midst of that swamp of water. The wolves pursued the sheep, and those wolves ran after them into that swamp of water. 26And when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to flee from his presence, but that swamp of water flowed together and suddenly returned to its natural state. And the water swelled up and rose until it covered those wolves. 27And I saw until all the wolves that had pursued those sheep perished and sank. From the Exodus to Moses’ Death

28But the sheep departed from that water and went out to a desert, where there was no water or grass, and they began to open their eyes and see. And I saw (until) the Lord of the sheep was pasturing them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep was going and leading them. 29That sheep went up to the summit of a high rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it to them. 30And after that, I saw the Lord of the sheep who stood before them, and his appearance was majestic and fearful and mighty, and all those sheep saw him and were afraid before him. 31And all of them were afraid and trembling because of him, and they were crying out after that sheep with the other sheep that was in their midst, ‘We cannot stand before our Lord or look at him.’ 32And again that sheep that led them went up to the summit of that rock, and the sheep began to be blinded and to stray from the path that it had shown them, but the sheep did not know about these things. 33And the Lord of the sheep was filled with great wrath against them, and that sheep discovered it and went down from the summit of that rock and came to the sheep and found most of them blinded and straying. 34And when they saw it, they were afraid and trembled before it, and wished to return to their folds. 35And that sheep took other sheep with it and went against those sheep that had strayed and began to slaughter them, and the sheep were afraid of it. And that sheep returned all the straying flock to their folds.10

36And I saw in this vision, until that sheep became a man and built a house for the Lord of the sheep and made all the sheep stand in that house. 37And I saw until that sheep that had met that sheep that had led them fell asleep. And I saw until all the large sheep perished, and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a pasture and approached a river of water. 38And that sheep that had led them, that had become a man, was separated from them and fell asleep, and all the sheep searched for him and cried bitterly because of him. From the Entrance into the Land to the Building of the Temple

39And I saw until they ceased crying for that sheep and crossed that stream of water, and <two> sheep arose that led them instead of those that had fallen asleep; and they led them. 40And I saw the sheep until they were entering a good place and a pleasant and glorious land. And I saw those sheep until they were satisfied, and that house was in their midst in the pleasant land.

41And sometimes their eyes were opened, and sometimes they were blinded, until another sheep arose and led them and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened.

42And the dogs began to devour the sheep, and the wild boars and the foxes were devouring them, until the Lord of the sheep raised up a ram from among the sheep, which led them.1143And this ram began to butt and pursue with its horns. And it hurled itself against the foxes and, after them, against the wild boars; and it destroyed many wild boars. And after them it began<struck> the dogs. 44And the sheep whose eyes were open saw the ram among the sheep until it forsook its path and began to walk where there was no path.12 45And the Lord of the sheep sent this sheep to another sheep to appoint it to be ram, to rule the sheep instead of the ram that had forsaken its way. 46And it went to it and spoke with it secretly, alone, and appointed it to be ram and ruler and leader of the sheep. And during all these things, the dogs were oppressing the sheep. 47And the first ram pursued the second ram, and the second ram arose and fled before it. Then I looked at the first ram until it fell before the dogs.

48And the second ram arose and led the sheep. 49And the sheep grew and multiplied, and all the dogs and foxes fled from it and feared it. And that ram butted and killed all the beasts, and those beasts did not prevail again among the sheep, nor did they snatch anything at all away from them. 48bAnd that ram begot many sheep, and it fell asleep.

And a little sheep became ram instead of it, and it became ruler and leader of those sheep. 50And that house became large and broad. And a large and high tower was built upon that house for the Lord of the sheep.13 That house was low, but the tower was raised up and was high. And the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower, and they spread a full table before him. The Apostasy of the Two Kingdoms

51And again I saw that those sheep strayed and went off in many paths and abandoned that house of theirs. And the Lord of the sheep summoned some from among the sheep and sent them to the sheep, and the sheep began to kill them, 52but one of them escaped safely and was not killed. It sprang away and cried out over the sheep, and they wished to kill it; but the Lord of the sheep saved it from the hands of the sheep and brought it up to me and made it dwell (there). 53And many other sheep he sent to those sheep to testify and lament over them.

54After that I saw when they abandoned the house of the Lord and his tower, they went astray in everything, and their eyes were blinded. And I saw that the Lord of the sheep worked much slaughter on them in their pastures, until<because> those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed his place. 55And he abandoned them into the hands of the lions and the leopards and the wolves and the hyenas and into the hands of the foxes and to all the beasts; and those wild beasts began to tear those sheep in pieces. 56And I saw that he abandoned that house of theirs and their tower, and he threw them all into the hands of the lions so that they might tear them in pieces and devour them-into the hands of all the beasts. 57And I began to cry out with all my might and to call to the Lord of the sheep and to show him concerning the sheep, because they were devoured by all the wild beasts. 58And he was silent, though he saw (it), and he rejoiced because they were devoured and swallowed up and carried off, and he abandoned them into the hands of all the beasts as fodder.

1.2.3. From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the End of Time The Commissioning of the Seventy Shepherds and the Angelic Scribe

59And he summoned seventy shepherds, and he left those sheep to them, that they might pasture them. And he said to the shepherds and their subordinates, ‘Every one of you from now on shall pasture the sheep, and everything that I command you, do. 60I am handing them over to you duly numbered, and I will tell you which of them are to be destroyed. Destroy them.’ And he handed those sheep over to them.

61And another one he summoned and said to him, ‘Observe and see everything that the shepherds do against these sheep, for they will destroy more of them than I have commanded them. 62Every excess and destruction that is done by the shepherds, write down—how many they destroy at my command, and how many they destroy on their own. Every destruction by each individual shepherd, write down against them. 63And by number read them in my presence—how many they destroy and how many they hand over to destruction, so that I may have this testimony against them, that I may know every deed of the shepherds, that I may <measure> them and see what they are doing-whether they are acting according to the command that I gave them or not. 64And do not let them know it, and do not show them or rebuke them. But write down every destruction by the shepherds, one by one, in his own time, and bring it all up to me.’ The First Period: The Twelve Shepherds until the Exile

65And I saw until those shepherds were pasturing <each> in his time, and they began to kill and destroy many more than they had been commanded, and they abandoned those sheep into the hands of the lions. 66And the lions and leopards devoured and swallowed up most of those sheep, and the wild boars devoured along with them, and they burnt down that tower and demolished that house. 67And I grieved exceedingly over that tower and because that house of the sheep had been demolished. And from then on I was unable to see whether those sheep were going into that house.

68And the shepherds and their subordinates handed over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour them. And each of them, individually, in his time, was given over by number, and by number each of them handed over14 to his companion. In a book it was written15 how many of them he was destroying. 69And more than was prescribed for them each of them was killing and destroying, and I began to weep and lament because of those sheep. 70And thus in the vision I saw how that one who was writing was writing down each one that was being destroyed by those shepherds every day, and (how) he was bringing up and causing to rest<spreading out> and showing that whole book to the Lord of the sheep, everything that they had done, and everything that each one of them had taken away, and everything that they had handed over to destruction. 71And the book was read in the presence of the Lord of the sheep, and he took the book from his hand and read it and set it down. 72a And after that I saw the shepherds pasturing for twelve hours.<And I saw until> the shepherds were pasturing for twelve hours. The Second Period: the Twenty-three Shepherds from the Return to Alexander

72bAnd look, three of those sheep returned and came and entered and began to build all that had fallen down from that house. And the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they could not. 73And they began again to build as before and they raised up that tower and it was called the high tower. And they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure. 74And besides all these things, the eyes of the sheep were blind, and they did not see, and their shepherds likewise. And they handed them over to the shepherds<wild beasts> for greater destruction, and they trampled the sheep with their feet and devoured them. 75And the Lord of the sheep remained silent until all the sheep were scattered over the field and were mixed with them, and they did not save them from the hand of the beasts. 76And this one who was writing the book brought it up and showed it and read it in the houses16 of the Lord of the sheep. And he interceded with him in their behalf and petitioned him in their behalf, showing him every deed of the shepherds, and he testified in his presence against all the shepherds. 77And he took the book and set it down by him and went out.

90 :1And I saw until the time when thirty-seven<thirty-five> shepherds had been pasturing in this manner, and they all completed their respective times like the first ones. And others received them into their hands to pasture them in their respective times, each shepherd in his time. The Third Period: the Twenty-three Shepherds from Alexander into the Second Century

2After this in my vision I saw all the birds of heaven come—eagles and vultures and kites and ravens, and the eagles were leading all the birds. And they began to devour those sheep and peck out their eyes and devour their flesh. 3And the sheep cried out because their flesh was being devoured by the birds, and I cried out and lamented in my sleep because of that shepherd who was pasturing the sheep. 4And I saw until those sheep were devoured by the dogs and by the eagles and by the kites. And they left them neither flesh nor skin nor sinew, until only their bones remained; and their bones fell on the earth, and the sheep became few. 5And I saw until the time that twenty-three shepherds had been pasturing, and they completed in their respective times fifty-eight times. The Fourth Period: the Twelve Shepherds Until the End Time

6And look, lambs were born of those white sheep, and they began to open their eyes and to see and to cry out to the sheep. 7But they did not listen to them17 nor attend to their words, but they were extremely deaf, and their eyes were extremely and excessively blinded. 8And I saw in the vision that the ravens flew upon those lambs and seized one of those lambs18 and dashed the sheep in pieces and devoured them. 9And I saw until horns came out on those lambs, and the ravens were casting down their horns. {And I saw until a great horn sprouted on one of those sheep. 10And it looked on them, and their eyes were opened, and it cried out to the sheep, and the rams saw it, and they all ran to it.} 11And besides this, all those eagles and vultures and ravens and kites were still tearing the sheep in pieces and flying upon them and devouring them. And the sheep were silent, but the rams lamented and cried out. {12And those ravens were struggling and fighting with it and wished to do away with its horn, but they did not prevail against it. 13And I saw until the shepherds and the eagles and those vultures and the kites came, and they cried to the ravens to smash the horn of that ram, and they struggled and made war with it, and it was struggling with them and cried out that its help might come. 14And I looked until that man came who wrote the names of the shepherds and brought (them) before the Lord of the sheep and he helped it and showed it everything; his help came down to that ram. 15And I saw until the Lord of the sheep came upon them in wrath, and all that saw him fled and all fell into darkness19 before him. 16And all the eagles and vultures and ravens and kites gathered and brought with them all the wild sheep<beasts>,20 and they all came together and helped one another smash the horn of that ram.} 17And I looked at that man who wrote the book at the word of the Lord, until he opened the book of the destruction that those last twelve shepherds worked, and he showed before the Lord of the sheep that they had destroyed more than those before them. 18And I saw until the Lord of the sheep came to them and took in his hand the staff of his wrath and struck the earth, and the earth was split, and all the beasts and all the birds of heaven fell (away) from among those sheep and sank in the earth, and it covered over them. 19And I saw until a large sword was given to those sheep, and the sheep went out against all the wild beasts to kill them, and all the beasts and the birds of heaven fled before them.

1.2.4. The Judgment and the New Age The Judgment

20And I saw until a throne was constructed in the pleasant land and the Lord of the sheep sat upon it, and he took all the sealed books and opened those books before the Lord of the sheep. 21And the Lord summoned those first seven white men, and he commanded them to bring before him beginning with the first star that had preceded those stars whose organs were like the organs of horses,21 and they brought all of them before him. 22And he said to the man who had been writing before him—who was one of those seven white ones—he said to him, ‘Bring those seventy shepherds to whom I delivered the sheep and who took and killed more than I commanded them.’ 23And look, I saw all of them bound, and they all stood before him. 24And judgment was exacted first on the stars, and they were judged and found to be sinners. And they went to the place of judgment, and they threw them into an abyss; and it was full of fire, and it was burning and was full of pillars of fire. 25And those seventy shepherds were judged and found to be sinners, and they were thrown into that fiery abyss. 26And I saw at that time that an abyss like it was opened in the middle of the earth, which was full of fire. And they brought those blinded sheep, and they were all judged and found to be sinners. And they were thrown into that fiery abyss, and they burned. And that abyss was to the south of that house. 27And I saw those sheep burning and their bones burning. A New Beginning

28And I stood up to see, until that old house was folded up22—and they removed all the pillars, and all the beams and ornaments of that house were folded up with it—and they removed it and put it in a place to the south of the land. 29And I saw until the Lord of the sheep brought a new house, larger and higher than that first one, and he erected it on the site of the first one that had been rolled up. And all its pillars were new, and its beams were new, and its ornaments were new and larger than (those of) the first one, the old one that he had removed. And all the sheep were within it.

30And I saw all the sheep that remained. And all the animals on the earth and all the birds of heaven were falling down and worshiping those sheep and making petition to them and obeying them in every word<thing>.

31After that, those three who were clothed in white and who had taken hold of me by my hand, who had previously brought me up (with the hand of that ram also taking hold of me), set me down among those sheep before the judgment took place.

32And all those sheep were white, and their wool was thick and pure. 33And all that had been destroyed and dispersed and<by> all the wild beasts and all the birds of heaven were gathered in that house. And the Lord of the sheep rejoiced greatly because they were all good and had returned to that house. 34And I saw until they laid down chat sword that had been given to the sheep; they brought it back to his house and sealed it up in the presence of the Lord. And all the sheep were enclosed in that house, but it did not contain them. 35And the eyes of all were opened, and they saw good things; and there was none among them that did not see. 36And I saw how that house was large and broad and very full.

37And I saw how a white bull was born, and its horns were large. And all the wild beasts and all the birds of heaven were afraid of it and made petition to it continually. 38And I saw until all their species were changed, and they all became white cattle. And the first one became word<leader> among them (and that word<leader> was a large animal), and there were large black horns on its head. And the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the cattle.

1.2.5. The Conclusion to the Vision

39And I slept among them and awoke. And I saw everything, 40and this is the vision that I saw while I slept. And I awoke and blessed the Lord of righteousness and gave him glory. 41And after that I wept bitterly, and my tears did not cease until I could no longer endure it, but they were running down because of what I had seen; for everything will come to pass and be fulfilled, and every deed of humanity was shown to me in its order. 42That night I remembered the first dream. I wept because of it, and I was disturbed because I had seen the vision.”

2. A Narrative Bridge (Chapters 91:1-9, 18-19)

And now, my son Methuselah,
Call to me all your brothers,
and gather to me all the children of your mother.
For a voice is calling me,
and a spirit is poured out upon me,
so that I may show you everything that will happen to you forever.
Then Methuselah went and called all his brothers to him and gathered his relatives.
And he spoke (of) righteousness to all his sons,23 and he said:
“Hear, O sons of Enoch, every word of your father,
and listen aright to the voice of my mouth;
for I testify to you and speak to you, my beloved.
Love the truth and walk in it;
but do not draw near to the truth with a double heart,
and do not associate with those of a double heart.
But walk in righteousness, my children;
and it will guide you in the paths of goodness,
and righteousness will be your companion.
For I know that the state of violence will grow strong on the earth,
and a great scourge will be consummated on the earth.
Indeed, all iniquity will be consummated,
but it will be cut off from its roots,
and its whole structure will vanish.
And again iniquity will be consummated on the earth,
and all the deeds of iniquity and violence and sin will prevail again.
And when sin and iniquity and blasphemy and violence increase in every deed,
and perversity and sin and uncleanness increase,
a great scourge will come from heaven upon all these,
and the holy Lord will come forth in wrath and with a scourge,
to execute judgment upon the earth.
And in those days, violence will be cut off from its roots,
as well as the roots of iniquity, together with deceit,
and they will be destroyed from under heaven.
And all the idols of the nations will be given up,
and the tower(s) will be burned with fire.
They will be removed from all the earth,
and they will be thrown into the fiery judgment,
and they will be destroyed in fierce, everlasting judgment.
{And the righteous will arise from his sleep, and wisdom will arise and be given to them.}
And now I tell you, my children,
and I show you the paths of righteousness and the paths of violence,
and I shall show you25 them again, that you may know what is coming.
And now hear me, my children,
and walk in the paths of righteousness,
and do not walk in the paths of violence;
for they will perish forever—
all who walk in the paths of iniquity.”26

3. The Epistle of Enoch (Chapters 92-105)

3.1. Introduction (Chapter 92)

WRITTEN BY ENOCH THE SCRIBE (this complete sign of wisdom)27 (who is) praised by all people and a leader of the whole earth, to all my sons who will dwell on the earth, and to the last generations who will observe truth and peace.
Let not your spirit be troubled because of the times;
for the Great Holy One has appointed days for everything.
The righteous one will arise from sleep;
he will arise and walk in the paths of righteousness,
and all his path and his journey (will be) in piety and everlasting mercy.
And (God) will be merciful to the righteous one,
and to him he will give everlasting truth;
and (to him) he will give authority,
and he will judge28 in piety and in righteousness;
and he will walk in everlasting light.
Sin will be destroyed in darkness forever;
and it will not be seen from that day forever.

3.2. The Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1-10; 91:11-17)

3.2.1. Introduction

After this Enoch took up his parable<discourse>,29 saying,
“Concerning the sons of righteousness,
and concerning the chosen of eternity,
and concerning the plant of truth,
these things I say to you
and I make known to you, my sons,
I myself, Enoch.
The vision of heaven was shown to me,
and from the words of the watchers and holy ones I have learned everything,
and in the heavenly tablets I read everything and I understood.”30

3.2.2. The Apocalypse

And Enoch took up his discourse and said,
“I was born the seventh in the first week,
and until my time righteousness endured.
After me there will arise a second week,
in which deceit and violence will spring up,
and in it will be the first end,
and in it a man will be saved.
And after it is completed<that, at its conclusion>, iniquity will increase,
and a law will be made for sinners.
After this there will <arise> a third week,
and at its conclusion a man will be chosen as the plant of righteous judgment,
and after him will go forth the plant of righteousness forever and ever.
After this there will <arise> a fourth week,
and at its conclusion, visions of the holy and righteous will be seen,
and a covenant for all generations and a tabernacle will be made for them<in it>.
After this there will <arise> a fifth week
and at its conclusion, the house of glory and<temple of the glorious> kingdom will be built forever.
After this there will <arise> a sixth week,
and all who live in it will become blind,
and the hearts of all will stray from wisdom;
and in it a man will ascend.
And at the close of the week<its conclusion>,
the temple of the kingdom will be burned with fire,
and in it the whole race of the chosen root will be dispersed.
After this, in the seventh week, there will arise a perverse generation,
and many will be its deeds,
and all its deeds will be perverse.
And at its conclusion, the chosen will be chosen,
as witnesses <of righteousness> from the everlasting plant of righteousness,
to whom will be given sevenfold wisdom concerning all his creation<and knowledge>.
And they will uproot the foundations of violence,
and the structure of deceit in it,
to execute judgment.31
After this there will arise an eighth week of righteousness,
in which a sword will be given to all the righteous,
to execute righteous judgment on all the wicked,
and they will be delivered into their hands.
And at its conclusion, they will acquire houses<possessions> in righteousness,
and the temple of the kingdom of the Great One will be built in the greatness of its glory
for all the generations forever<of eternity>.
After this there will arise a ninth week,
in which righteous law will be revealed to all the sons of the whole earth,
and all the deeds32 of wickedness will vanish from the whole earth and descend to the everlasting pit,33
and all humankind will look to the path of everlasting righteousness.
After this, in the tenth week, the seventh part, (will be) the everlasting judgment,
and it will be executed on the watchers of the eternal heaven,
<and a fixed time of the great judgment will be rendered among the holy ones>.
And the first heaven will pass away in it,
and a new heaven will appear,
and all the powers of the heavens will shine forever with sevenfold (brightness).34
After this there will be many weeks without number forever,
in which they will do piety and righteousness,
and from then on sin will never again be mentioned.”


1 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) I.e., a human tongue. “flesh” retained here to indicate parallels in vv 1c, 4b, 6a.

2 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) The order “struck and pursued” is odd. Perhaps the verbs should be reversed, or the second very should be passive: Cain is pursued. See 1 Enoch 1, 371.

3 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Fragmentary Aram “among them” indicates a somewhat different wording.

4 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) This verb attested in only one Eth ms, but see 1 Enoch 1, 367.

5 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Precise translation of this verse uncertain. See 1 Enoch 1, 367.

6 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Three mss read “without his trembling.”Aram omits the phrase.

7 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Aram text in vv 2-8 is generally shorter than Eth, which is followed here because it is complete and Aram is fragmentary. See 1 Enoch 1, 368. Part of the difference seems due to different cosmologies: the Aram a straightforward summary of Genesis; Eth, depicting the cosmos as a great building with a courtyard (enclosure) set on earth. See 1 Enoch 1, 375-76.

8 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Identity of these species of birds is uncertain.

9 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Aram “calf.”

10 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Following the wording of Aram.

11 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Translation follows mainly Gk fragment against corrupt Eth.

12 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Translation follows mainly Gk.

13 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) For the textual confusion in this passage, see 1 Enoch 1, 369-70; Tiller, Commentary, 312-13.

14 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Clause omitted in most mss, perhaps due to its similarity to the previous one.

15 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Verb forms vary in mss.

16 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) On the textual problem, see Tiller, Commentary, 342. On the plural “houses,” cf. 14:10-15.

17 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Mss read a variety of verbs. See 1 Enoch 1, 389.

18 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) On the textual problem, see Tiller, Commentary, 352-53.

19 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Oldest Eth ms: others read (his) shadow.

20 (Todd R. Hanneken) I disagree with the Nickelsburg’s emendation. Though the pair of words together is not previously mentioned, the “sheep” are Jews and the adjective “wild” means assimilated to Greek/foreign culture. We know from other sources that not only foreigners but many Jews sympathetic to Greek culture opposed Judah Maccabee.

21 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) A few evidently superfluous words have been dropped here. See 1 Enoch 1, 403.

22 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Some witnesses read “submerged,” evidently an Eth corruption.

23 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Eth mss vary in their wording of this clause.

24 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Verses 10-17 are textually problematic. Vv 11-17 have been displaced from their original location after 93:10 (where they are relocated in this translation). V 10 appears to have been created to provide a transition when vv 11-17 were moved here. Additionally, Aram has textual material here with no counterpart in Eth. See 1 Enoch 1, 413-15.

25 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Three mss read and I have shown you.

26 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Fragmentary Aram indicates a longer and different form of these two lines.

27 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Somewhat different fragmentary Aram here and in v 2 cannot be reconstructed with certainty.

28 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Eth: wayekwēnnen. Many mss read wayekawwen (and he will be).

29 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Lit. “parable;” cf.1:2. Translation follows reconstructed Aram. Eth or its Gk corrupt. See 1 Enoch 1, 435.

30 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Aram and Eth of these two lines differ. Original wording uncertain. See 1 Enoch 1, 435.

31 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Translation follows Aram: Eth much longer, has been modified to fit its new place after 91:10. See 1 Enoch 1, 436.

32 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Or perhaps “doers.”

33 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Reconstructed Aram: Eth corrupt. See 1 Enoch 1, 437.

34 (George W. E. Nickelsburg) Exact wording of this line and v 17b uncertain. See 1 Enoch 1, 437.

Todd R. Hanneken, ed., “Selections from 1 Enoch.” San Antonio: St. Mary’s University, 2022.

Based on VanderKam and Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch: the Hermeneia Translation (Minneapolis: Fortress 2012).