3.1. Greeks and Romans (What changed with Hellenistic and Roman Rule?)

Learning from Mistakes

Open the past quiz(zes), textbook, screen notes, and your own notes. For the most challenging quiz questions answer the following questions.

Different Views of the Afterlife

Afterlife Exercise 1

At his death he will not take along anything,

his glory will not go down after him.

During his life his soul uttered blessings;

“They will praise you, for you do well for yourself.”

But he will join the company of his fathers,

never again to see the light.

In his prime, man does not understand.

He is like the beasts—they perish.

Afterlife Exercise 2

Death, I think, is actually nothing but the separation of two things from each other, the soul and the body...

When a man who has lived a just and pious life comes to his end, he goes to the Isles of the Blessed, to make his abode in complete happiness, beyond the reach of evils.

But when one who has lived in an unjust and godless way dies, he goes to the prison of payment and retribution, the one they call Tartarus.

Afterlife Exercise 3

The human body is a fleeting thing, but a virtuous name will never be annihilated.

Have respect for your name, for it will stand by you more than thousands of precious treasures.

The good things of life last a number of days, but a good name, for days without number.

Afterlife Exercise 4

Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, others to reproach and everlasting disgrace.

Afterlife Exercise 5

So also is the resurrection of the dead.

It is sown corruptible; it is raised incorruptible.

It is sown dishonorable; it is raised glorious.

It is sown weak; it is raised powerful.

It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body.

Views of the Afterlife Outside Ancient Judaism and Christianity


What is worth dying for?

Poll Exercise


Participate: pollev.com/toddhanneken457

Reading Responses

Faith and Reason

If there is no true afterlife, no reason for the Israelites to live up to their high morals because the sinners will be treated the same as the righteous, then why do they still choose to live their life for God and by God’s standards?

How did belief in the afterlife come into mind? What is the evidence?

Some believe you can come back again and again, which would make sense scientifically speaking since we cannot create or destroy matter and everybody is made up of matter. So how could we just cease to exist with no afterlife?

Where did the concept of hell and torment come from if the Israelites didn't believe in a hell that tormented individuals?

Cultural Exchange

It was interesting to read that the idea of body and soul first originated in Greece mostly with Plato.

It just seems like they used another culture's notions to form their own... is this the case that happened with Plato?

Why does Christianity not believe in reincarnation?

Cultural Conflict

Why did many nations and regions attack the Jews?

Was the greeks idea to convert/assimilate Jews so that they wouldn't have enough members to revolt against them?

In the Greek culture they wanted everyone to worship the emperors as gods, and if refused they considered it as political insubordination. What special treatment or type of worship did the emperors expect?