Amos, Hosea, Isaiah

Amos: The God of Israel is God of all nations

All people are God’s people, not just Israelites

Rescue from Egypt only means more responsibility

Comparable debate in Christian history about salvation outside the church

Amos and Hosea: God hates pious rituals

Amos 5:21-24

I hate, I despise your feasts, I take no pleasure in your solemnities. Even though you bring me your burnt offerings and grain offerings I will not accept them; Your stall-fed communion offerings, I will not look upon them. Take away from me your noisy songs; The melodies of your harps, I will not listen to them. Rather let justice surge like waters, and righteousness like an unfailing stream.

Hosea 6:6

For it is loyalty that I desire, not sacrifice, and knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.

Prophetic role of speaking out against dominant authority

Comparable debate in Christian history about necessity of sacraments

Salvation by faith and works vs. salvation by faith alone

Both ideas supported in NT

Luther: faith alone

Catholicism: faith and works go hand in hand

Salvation by works alone?


Dramatic imagery

Compares divine punishment to domestic violence

The Bible argues with itself

The limitations of thinking about God in metaphors

I am God and not a man. (Hosea 11:9)


Politics: trust in God

Influence: Isaiah 7:14, virgin or young woman

Rants against wealth