The Goring Ox

Judgments for comparable cases sorted by severity

Case Judgment Hammurabi Judgment Eshnunna Judgment Covenant Code
Murder citizen Death ¶1
60ש if unsolved ¶23-24
Death Death
21:12-14, 18-19
Murder slave 20ש if distrained ¶116 Avenged if immediate 21:20-21
Negligence wall Death builder ¶229-31 Capital case for owner (referred to king) ¶58 [Death if extrapolate from 21:29-30]
Negligence ox citizen 30ש ¶251-252 40ש ¶54
(Similarly dogs ¶56)
Ox killed, owner killed or ransomed
Same if minor is killed, cf. LH ¶230
Brawl 30ש ¶207 40ש ¶47A Asylum 21:12-14, 18-19
Negligence ox slave 20ש ¶252 15ש ¶55 (Similarly dogs ¶57) 30ש 21:32
Negligence non-ox property Market value (slaves) Market value 21:33-24
Accident ox human Nothing ¶250 Ox stoned, not eaten
  1. Would you rather be an ancient Israelite or an ancient Babylonian?
  2. Relative to Babylonian Law, is it always or generally true that life is sacred to the Israelites? In what ways?
  3. Specifically, is life ever given a monetary value?
  4. Is there a distinctive view of mirror punishments?
  5. What does ransom accomplish?
brone shekel, fingers

The value of a shekel ש

Leviticus 27:2-7 (applies to redeeming vows, not death)