Passages related to the descent of Christ into Hell

1 Peter 3:18 — 4:6

18 For Christ also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the sake of the unrighteous, that he might lead you to God. Put to death in the flesh, he was brought to life in the spirit. 19 In it [the spirit] he also went to preach to the spirits in prison, 20 who had once been disobedient while God patiently waited in the days of Noah during the building of the ark, in which a few persons, eight in all, were saved through water. 21 This prefigured baptism, which saves you now. It is not a removal of dirt from the body but an appeal to God for a clear conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22 who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers subject to him.

4:1 Therefore, since Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves also with the same attitude (for whoever suffers in the flesh has broken with sin), 2 so as not to spend what remains of one's life in the flesh on human desires, but on the will of God. 3 For the time that has passed is sufficient for doing what the Gentiles like to do: living in debauchery, evil desires, drunkenness, orgies, carousing, and wanton idolatry. 4 They are surprised that you do not plunge into the same swamp of profligacy, and they vilify you; 5 but they will give an account to him who stands ready to judge the living and the dead. 6 For this is why the gospel was preached even to the dead that, though condemned in the flesh in human estimation, they might live in the spirit in the estimation of God.

Matthew 12:40

Just as Jonah was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights, so will the Son of Man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.

Matthew 27:51-53

51 And behold, the veil of the sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth quaked, rocks were split, 52 tombs were opened, and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep were raised. 53 And coming forth from their tombs after his resurrection, they entered the holy city and appeared to many.

Luke 23:39-43

39 Now one of the criminals hanging there reviled Jesus, saying, "Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us." 40 The other, however, rebuking him, said in reply, "Have you no fear of God, for you are subject to the same condemnation? 41 And indeed, we have been condemned justly, for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes, but this man has done nothing criminal." 42 Then he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom." 43 He replied to him, "Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise."

Ephesians 4:8-10

8 Therefore, it says: "He ascended on high and took prisoners captive; he gave gifts to men." 9 What does "he ascended" mean except that he also descended into the lower (regions) of the earth? 10 The one who descended is also the one who ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things.

Psalm 68:19-23

19 You went up to its lofty height;
you took captives, received slaves as tribute.
No rebels can live in the presence of God.

20 Blessed be the Lord day by day,
God, our salvation, who carries us. Selah

21 Our God is a God who saves;
escape from death is in the LORD God's hands.

22 God will crush the skulls of the enemy,
the hairy heads of those who walk in sin.

23 The Lord has said: "Even from Bashan I will fetch them,
fetch them even from the depths of the sea.

Other canonical passages are also sometimes discussed for less obvious reasons

Job 38:17; Acts 2:24-28; Romans 10:6-7

Karl Barth takes the suffering of Christ on the cross, and particularly "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?" (Matthew 27:46) to mean that Christ's suffering was absolute. That is, Jesus suffered even beyond physical torture and death, suffering the total absense of God which is Hell.

The Apostles' Creed

I believe in God, the Father almighty,
creator of heaven and earth.

I believe in Jesus Christ, God's only Son, our Lord,
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit,
born of the Virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate,
was crucified, died, and was buried;
he descended into hell (ad inferna / εις τα κατώτατα).
On the third day he rose again;
he ascended into heaven,
he is seated at the right hand of the Father,
and he will come again to judge the living and the dead.

I believe in the Holy Spirit,
the holy catholic church,
the communion of saints,
the forgiveness of sins,
the resurrection of the body,
and the life everlasting. AMEN.

Ignatius of Antioch (early 2nd century), Epistle to the Magnesians 9

Therefore He whom they [the prophets] justly waited for came and raised them from the dead.

Third Century Syriac Didascalia

... who was crucified under Pontius Pilate and departed in peace, in order to preach to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and all the saints concerning the end of the world and the resurrection of the dead. (MacCulloch 1930 70)